Galungan is a Balinese holiday that occurs every 210 days and lasts for 10 days. Kuningan is the last day of the holiday. Galungan means "When the Dharma is winning." During this holiday the Balinese gods visit the Earth and leave on Kuningan.
Galungan Day is the climax of the Galungan celebrations. Throughout the day the local temples are crowded with people coming and going, bringing the offerings that have been prepared since Penyekeban.
Occurring once in every 210 days in the pawukon (Balinese cycle of days), Galungan marks the beginning of the most important recurring religious ceremony that is celebrated by all Balinese. During the Galungan period the deified ancestors of the family descend to their former homes. They must be suitably entertained and welcomed, and prayers and offerings must be made for them. Those families who have ancestors that have not yet been cremated, but are still buried in the village cemetery, must make offerings at the graves.
Although Galungan falls on a Wednesday, most Balinese will begin their Galungan 'holiday' the day before, where the family is seen to be busily preparing offerings and cooking for the next day. While the women of the household have been busy for days before creating beautifully woven 'banten' (offerings made from young coconut fronds), the men of our village usually wake up well before dawn to join with their neighbours to slaughter a pig unlucky enough to be chosen to help celebrate this occasion. Then the finely diced pork is mashed to a pulp with a grinding stone, and moulded onto sate sticks that have been already prepared by whittling small sticks of bamboo. Chickens may also be chosen from the collection of free-range chickens that roam around the house compound. Delicate combinations of various vegetables, herbs and spices are also prepared by the men to make up a selection of 'lawar' dishes. While much of this cooking is for use in the offerings to be made at the family temple, by mid-morning, once all the cooking is done, it is time for the first of a series of satisfying feasts from what has been prepared. While the women continue to be kept busy with the preparations of the many offerings to be made at the family temple on the day of Galungan, the men also have another job to do this day, once the cooking is finished. A long bamboo pole, or 'penjor', is made to decorate the entrance to the family compound. By late Tuesday afternoon all over Bali the visitor can see these decorative poles creating a very festive atmosphere in the street.
On Wednesday, the day of Galungan, one will find that most Balinese will try to return to their own ancestral home at some stage during the day, even if they work in another part of the island. This is a very special day for families, where offerings are made to God and to the family ancestors who have come back to rest at this time in their family temple. As well as the family temple, visits are made to the village temple with offerings as well, and to the homes of other families who may have helped the family in some way over the past six months.
The day after Galungan is a time for a holiday, visiting friends, maybe taking the opportunity to head for the mountains for a picnic. Everyone is still seen to be in their 'Sunday best' as they take to the streets to enjoy the festive spirit that Galungan brings to Bali.
The date for Galungan and other special Balinese days is shown on the Balinese Calendar.
Depending on the type of offering (see below) these are presented:
- at the penjor
- at places of worship such as the family temple and plankiran
- at main temple shrines
- at minor temple shrines
- for working tools.
- Tumpeng Penyajan [presented at: 1,3,4,5]
- Tumpeng Wewakulan [presented at: 1,3]
- Ajuman [presented at: 1,3,4]
- Ajuman Putih/Kuning [presented at: 1]
- Canang Raka [presented at: 1,3,4]
- Pasucian [presented at: 1,2,3,4]
- Canang Burat Wangi [presented at: 1,3]
- Canang Sawah (Ladang) [presented at: 4]
- Canag Genten [presented at: 4,5]
- Sesayut [presented at: 2]
- Pengambyan Peres [presented at: 2]
- Penyeneng [presented at: 2]
- Dapetan [presented at: 2]
- Jarimpen [presented at: 2]
- Gebogan [presented at: 2]
- Pajegan [presented at: 2]
Special Galungan celebrations
- Galungan Nadi - If Budha Kliwon Dungulan coincidences with Purnama (full moon) - similar to the first celebration which took place at Purnama, October 15, 882 AD - then the ngotonan (anniversary) of Galungan is celebrated, a special day that is blessed by Sang Hyang Ketu (Dewa Kecemerlangan). Galungan Nadi is celebrated in a much more solemn way than ordinary Galungan celebrations, and in general the offerings on this day will be more elaborate.
Ethymology: Nadi is Balinese for 'become alive' (magically), Ketu is Balinese for 'headgear of a priest', and Kecemerlangan means 'glorious'.
Celebration date: Galungan Nadi occurs about every 10 years.
- Galungan Nara Mangsa - If Budha Kliwon Dungulan coincidences with Tilem (dark moon) Sasih Kepitu (7th month of the Balinese Saka moon calendar) or Tilem Sasih Kesanga (the 9th month of the Saka calendar, which is the day before Nyepi) then Galungan falls on a very bad day. Such days are ruled by Kala Rau - days on which the bhuta kala are very active while the dewa/dewi (gods) remain passive.
At Galungan Nara Mangsa it is therefore forbidden to present sesajen offerings that contain tumpeng (Tumpeng Galugan); one is advised to offer a segehan instead, in particular caru offerings that contain nasi cacahan mixed with keladi (a type of vegetable).
When the day of penyekeban has arrived, the fruits that will be used for the Galungan offerings are stored in a special place so that it will be ripe in time for Galungan Day.
Besides its literal meaning of ripening fruit, Penyekeban also has a (more important) symbolic meaning in respect with the bhuana alit (the inner world of the individual human being). In spiritual sense the individual, just like the fruits, has to ripen in order to be in a position to siege over adharma, the selfish urges, desires, and actions of the ego.
Penyekeban is also the day that the first of the Sang Kala Tiga, Sang Bhuta Galungan, descends to earth to tempt mankind to adharma.
Penyekeban takes place three days before Galungan Day, at Redite Pahing, the Sunday of the 11th week of the Balinese Pawukon calendar, Dungulan.